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By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service. Software Engineering Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for professionals, academics, and students working within the systems development life cycle. It only takes a minute to sign up. Now if we decide to change the enum element from " TeamLead " to " Lead " then we have to modify the above line of code as well i. So what is the best practice.

The most basic answer to your question is this: Most C IDEs I know of have a Refactoring option that easily lets you rename variables and references, such as enum types. If you highlight TeamLead, anywhere it's used, right-click it and look for a Rename option, you should be able to change references in all code files of your project. If you reference it as a string at some point, it may be good to do a full text search and handle individual cases.

However, my full answer, which I can only hope you care about, is that this is the wrong way of going about things in an object-oriented language. Here's how I'd do it, in incomplete pseudo-code:. Renaming an element of an enum is not a problem: Visual Studio does that for you, while ensuring that every reference to it will be renamed as well.

Imagine that TeamLead is a team lead, while Lead is a lead developer in a team. Imagine the following piece of code:. If you rename the role, you will miss the business rules, i. Now, lead developer can fire other developers, while only team lead is expected to be able to do it. Unless you're Googleyou may have dependencies in external projects.

Visual Studio won't be able to find those, so the problem will arise the next time you open a solution which is referencing the old TeamLead. Sometimes, and this is an extremely bad practice, the item from the enum is converted to string, and then used in a comparison, or stored in database, etc. Renaming the element will break those pieces of code.

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Maybe it's better: you'll be able to find them and rewrite them correctly. Just use a refactoring tool. You cannot circumvent the fact that if you rename something you have to rename it everywhere but a refactoring tool will make that easy. Most refactoring tools can easily help with this. It allows mass renaming based on language semantics, not only text-replace.

But if you use complex enums for business logic, I would start thinking if you shouldn't be using proper OOP. I will answer, not because I think the other answers are bad, but because I think there is another thing to be said in this case.

Well, in your case, since you Enum seems to be kind of hierarchic, I would define them as flags, and benefit from that when using and comparing the values. The other option of using a object-oriented structure will work only if there is specific behavior or structure you want to separate concerns with.

If it is a case of just defining a property that why there are enums!

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This may break binary compatibility. You need to ensure the caller code is possible to be modified. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Asked 6 years, 11 months ago. Active 6 years, 11 months ago. Viewed 22k times. Best practice with regard to what?Enums are a special kind of value type. There are two kinds of enums: simple enums and flag enums.

Simple enums represent small closed sets of choices. A common example of the simple enum is a set of colors. Flag enums are designed to support bitwise operations on the enum values.

A common example of the flags enum is a list of options.

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You can always simply add values to the existing enum at a later stage. See Adding Values to Enums for more details on adding values to enums. Reserved values just pollute the set of real values and tend to lead to user errors.

A common practice for ensuring future extensibility of C APIs is to add reserved parameters to method signatures. Such reserved parameters can be expressed as enums with a single default value. This should not be done in managed APIs. Method overloading allows adding parameters in future releases.

Although they are sometimes helpful to framework developers, sentinel values are confusing to users of the framework. They are used to track the state of the enum rather than being one of the values from the set represented by the enum.

Consider calling the value something like "None. The underlying type needs to be different than Int32 for easier interoperability with unmanaged code expecting different-size enums. A smaller underlying type would result in substantial savings in space. If you expect the enum to be used mainly as an argument for flow of control, the size makes little difference.

The size savings might be significant if:.

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For in-memory usage, be aware that managed objects are always DWORD -aligned, so you effectively need multiple enums or other small structures in an instance to pack a smaller enum with in order to make a difference, because the total instance size is always going to be rounded up to a DWORD. Enum directly. Enum is a special type used by the CLR to create user-defined enumerations. Most programming languages provide a programming element that gives you access to this functionality.

For example, in C the enum keyword is used to define an enumeration. FlagsAttribute to flag enums. Do not apply this attribute to simple enums. Bitwise operations are an advanced concept and should not be required for simple tasks. ReadWrite is an example of such a special value. For a flag enum, the value must always mean "all flags are cleared. It is very common to discover that you need to add values to an enum after you have already shipped it. There is a potential application compatibility problem when the newly added value is returned from an existing API, because poorly written applications might not handle the new value correctly.

If you have real data about application incompatibilities caused by additions to an enum, consider adding a new API that returns the new and old values, and deprecate the old API, which should continue returning just the old values. This will ensure that your existing applications remain compatible. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc.This topic describes best practices for using enums.

Define and use enums when a field or a variable can have a limited, fixed number of predefined outcomes. If there might be an unlimited number of user-defined outcomes, use a to-be-related-to table instead. If you want to make an enum a mandatory field on a table, make the first outcome with the value zero, as none, with the label Not selected. Most enums can be regarded as specialized types, and should be used as they are.

Some enums like NoYes and TableGroupAll can be regarded as more general types that can be specialized by using extended data types. Never use other constants such as other enum types instead of enums Booleans are compatible with all enums. Do not expect the enumerators to have a numeric value in the range of 0. If you want to delete an enumerator, determine whether it has been used in persistent storage in existing tables; old data must be taken into account.

Write a release update job that removes the data that is based on this enumerator from the installation, probably changing it to something else, so that the total result will be consistent. Remove the enumerator in the next version so that other enumerators do not change their numerical value: to set the UseEnumValue property to Yes, on the enum. Best Practices for Enum Properties. Get your copy at the MS Press Store. You may also leave feedback directly on GitHub.

Skip to main content. Exit focus mode. Enums and Constants When you are working with enums and constants: Always let the constant be an enumerator. Never use numeric constants instead of enums. Never use relational operators on enums. Never compare or assign to enums of different types.

Deleting Enumerators If you want to delete an enumerator, determine whether it has been used in persistent storage in existing tables; old data must be taken into account.This guide describes how to use the protocol buffer language to structure your protocol buffer data, including.

It covers the proto2 version of the protocol buffers language: for information on the newer proto3 syntax, see the Proto3 Language Guide. Prefer Proto3 While proto2 will continue to be supported, we encourage new code to use proto3 instead, which is easier to use and supports more languages.

This is a reference guide — for a step by step example that uses many of the features described in this document, see the tutorial for your chosen language. Defining A Message Type First let's look at a very simple example. Let's say you want to define a search request message format, where each search request has a query string, the particular page of results you are interested in, and a number of results per page.

Here's the. Each field has a name and a type. However, you can also specify composite types for your fields, including enumerations and other message types.

Assigning Field Numbers As you can see, each field in the message definition has a unique number. These numbers are used to identify your fields in the message binary formatand should not be changed once your message type is in use. Note that field numbers in the range 1 through 15 take one byte to encode, including the field number and the field's type you can find out more about this in Protocol Buffer Encoding.

Field numbers in the range 16 through take two bytes. So you should reserve the field numbers 1 through 15 for very frequently occurring message elements. Remember to leave some room for frequently occurring elements that might be added in the future. The smallest field number you can specify is 1, and the largest is 2 29 - 1, orYou also cannot use the numbers through FieldDescriptor::kFirstReservedNumber through FieldDescriptor::kLastReservedNumberas they are reserved for the Protocol Buffers implementation - the protocol buffer compiler will complain if you use one of these reserved numbers in your.

Similarly, you cannot use any previously reserved field numbers. Specifying Field Rules You specify that message fields are one of the following: required : a well-formed message must have exactly one of this field. The order of the repeated values will be preserved.

For historical reasons, repeated fields of scalar numeric types aren't encoded as efficiently as they could be. Required Is Forever You should be very careful about marking fields as required. If at some point you wish to stop writing or sending a required field, it will be problematic to change the field to an optional field — old readers will consider messages without this field to be incomplete and may reject or drop them unintentionally.

You should consider writing application-specific custom validation routines for your buffers instead. Some engineers at Google have come to the conclusion that using required does more harm than good; they prefer to use only optional and repeated.GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Have a question about this project? Sign up for a free GitHub account to open an issue and contact its maintainers and the community.

Already on GitHub? Sign in to your account. Currently pb3 applies c98 enum scoping rule for enums. This is inconvenient when we need same Identifier in different enums. I hope there will be an new option for enums as follow:.

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And this is totally compatible with current implementation, all existing code will not be disturbed. Even if I have to specify it as an option to the protoc invocation I'd be happy. I like this idea. The c98 enum scoping rule is super annoying when you want to use short enum values. One possible constraint is that some platforms do not have scoped enums support.

Just for curiosity, besides C98 and object-C, are there any other languages which do not support scoped enums? I googled for some popular languages and seems all of them have scoped syntax. But I think the opposite is true. This principle of least breakage was why I had started going that route in the first place. Is enum class allowed? For some embeded system, C98 is still widely used, so I think protoc should generate C98 compatible code.

Turns out that current design makes option scoped quite a bit more difficult than it would seem. The problem is that the code that does the validation and throws the error happens prior to the code that interprets the options, and between these two things is an ominous comment that says "Note that the following steps must occur in exactly the specified order". I think that the validation code can be moved to a different function that occurs after parsing, but this will be quite a bit more difficult as the logic in that context will probably have to be rewritten.

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Protocol Buffers Pitfall: Adding Enum Values

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My enum in java looks like this mentioned below. What it would be in. Not able to figure out how to take care of constructor and Getter methods for the variables type and code.

There is not any recommended way to represent java enum classes. But you can follow something like below. Learn more. Protocol Buffers: How to make. Ask Question. Asked 3 years, 4 months ago. Active 3 years, 4 months ago. Viewed 8k times. Vivek Sinha Vivek Sinha 1 1 gold badge 11 11 silver badges 21 21 bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. Based on the accepted answer and some further investigation here a full working example.

DescriptorProtos; import com. Descriptors; import java. Map; import java. SubOptimal SubOptimal Tharindu Kumara Tharindu Kumara 3, 1 1 gold badge 21 21 silver badges 38 38 bronze badges. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password.

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Software Engineering Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for professionals, academics, and students working within the systems development life cycle. It only takes a minute to sign up. I am working on a simple API that I want to use for my own client, and to open to the public in the future. I have "Item" objects which can have different "types". The type is a C "typedef enum", for the moment I have :. I am wondering if I should rather transfer it as integers or as defined "strings".

The JSON would be :. I'm wondering if there's a best practice for this. Keeping the integer would slightly simplify the code, and reduce the bandwidth, but strings would be easier for developers to remember. Provide the strings. Numbers are meaningless. You don't use them in your own code, right you're wrapping enum values around, that are basically strings - why punish the user with having to use these numbers?

The only pro if you do expose the numbers - easier for you to parse these. But hey, who cares about you. Take care of the API clients. If you provide the strings - easier for the clients; won't ever have to say things like "4 had been deprecated in favor of 17"; slightly harder parsing on your behalf, but that's fine.

One of Json's strengths is that its human-readable.

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When debugging the output half a year from now "0" will tell you nothing. Some frameworks will do auto-conversion too. If you're not using one - you can create a converter yourself to keep your code dry. Best Practice depends on who is consuming your API. If you are trying to make life easy for the consumer, you should provide sample code in C, JAVA, iOS, python, ruby that can consume your api.

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In these wrappers you can include the enum, use an int in json, and then just parse your json into an object with the enum already set, and return this object to the users code.

And then clearly state in your documentation that these are redundant and it's up to the developer to choose which is best for their application. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered.